Diabetes – Symptoms And Causes


Diabetes Mellitus is a kind of diabetes. This type of diabetes occurs when group of metabolic diseases in which there is high blood sugar level is increased over a longer period. It is the most common and chronic disease in the life. It is a lifelong disease that affect the body’s ability to use energy that was found through food.


Diabetes Mellitus is a kind of disorder in which blood sugar levels increases. They increases because the body did not get enough insulin to meets its needs. There are two types of sugars in our body. First one is simple and the another one is complex. Diabetes mellitus is defined with the table sugar and milk sugar. Table sugar is also known as sucrose and milk sugar is also known as lactose.

  • Symptoms of Diabetes Mellitus –
  • Person loses weight in diabetes mellitus.
  • Increase in urination and thirst when person is suffering from diabetes mellitus.
  • Diabetes mellitus damages the nerves.
  • There are sensation problem with diabetes mellitus.
  • In diabetes mellitus, there are risk of heart attack, stroke and kidney failure.
  • Diabetes mellitus damages the blood vessels.
  • Diabetes mellitus patients have urge to hunger.
  • Blurry vision, headache, fatigue, itchy skin.

When body glucose level increases the level above to 160 to 180 mg/dl then glucose mixes into the urine. And if the glucose in urine rises higher, then kidneys excrete extra water to dilute the glucose of large amount. As kidneys generates excessive urine, this is the reason people with diabetes have urinate in very high frequency. This is known as polyuria. Due to this excessive urination it creates frequent thirst also. As excessive calories are lost in urine that’s why most people suffering from diabetes mellitus lose weight frequently.

Acute complications

Acute Complications- It elevated blood sugar or low blood sugar due to diabetes mellitus medications.Chronic Complications – This complication in diabetes mellitus damage the feet, eyes, kidneys, nerves and heart.

Types of Diabetes Mellitus 
There are different types of Diabetes Mellitus

  • Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
  • Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Gestational Diabetes

As the studies proof all types of diabetes mellitus have something in common. As our body breaks down the carbohydrates and sugars that a person eats into special sugar called glucose. Glucose helps to fuel the cells in the body but cells need insulin. As the cells did not take the glucose, it moves to the blood. This is the reason of increasing blood glucose in body. Due to high level of blood glucose in body damage the small blood vessels of kidneys, nervous system, heart and eyes. This is the main reason why diabetes mellitus is remained untreated. The diseases occurred by this are heart disease, Kidney disease, stroke, blindness and nerve damage specially damage to the nerves of feet.

Type 1 diabetes mellitus is also known as insulin dependent diabetes. It is juvenile onset diabetes as it is often begins in childhood. It is an autoimmune condition in diabetes mellitus. It is basically caused when body itself attack on its own pancreas with antibodies. People having type 1 diabetes mellitus does not make insulin in their damaged pancreas.

It is caused by genetic predisposition. It may be caused with faulty beta cells in the pancreas that generates insulin generally. There are also many medical risks available with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Some of the risks are from small blood vessels in eyes, nerves and kidneys. More risk are of heart diseases and strokes.

  • Treatment for type 1 diabetes mellitus –
  • Treatment involves taking insulin, that is needed to be injected through the skin.
  • Methods used for injecting insulin are as –
  • Syringes
  • A fine needle
  • Insulin pens used to pre-filled cartridges.
  • Insulin pumps that dispense insulin under the skin.
  • Jet injectors that use high pressure air to send spray of insulin under body skin.

Periodic tests like A1C blood test is needed to measure the glucose level in the blood. It helps in identifying the glucose level and risk of complications from diabetes including organ damages. If a person is suffering from Type 1 diabetes mellitus. He oe she should have to change some of its lifestyle –

  • Testing blood glucose level frequently.
  • Meal planning that is carefully made.
  • Daily Exercise.
  • Having insulin and medical advices properly and carefully.
  • People who are suffering from type 1 diabetes mellitus can live their lives active and long, only if they monitor their glucose level, make important changes in their lifestyle and keep their treatment plan in mind.
  • Another form of diabetes mellitus is Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus –

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus 

It is basically known as adult onset diabetes but overweight and obese kids and more teenagers are having type 2 diabetes mellitus. It is also known as non-insulin dependent diabetes. It is the milder form of type 1 diabetes mellitus. It causes major health complications, merely in the small blood vessels in the body. Type 2 diabetes mellitus increases heart diseases and strokes. As pancreas generated the insulin but if body is having type 2 diabetes then the insulin generated is not enough for the body according to need. There is lack of sensitivity of insulin mostly found in fat, liver and muscle cells.

Obese people are at high risk of having type 2 diabetes mellitus. These people have insulin resistance. As there is resistance of insulin pancreas generates the insulin very hardly. As the result the insulin is not enough to control the sugar levels in the body. There is no cure to diabetes mellitus but it can be cured if the sufferer will manage its overweight, do regular exercises, and get more nutrition.

Today Type 2 diabetes mellitus is in more progress so medical treatments are very much needed in this. Blood sugar is used to be treated. Test A1C is a blood test that is done to measure the glucose levels in the blood of your body. This test tells the study of glucose level in blood from last three months. Periodic A1C tests are used to advised to see how a person is having its nutritional diets, exercise, and also if the medications are working properly or not. All this is checked to control sugar level and to prevent body from organal damage. There is suggestion that A1C test is done few times in a year. Type 2 Diabetes mellitus is found 95% in adults.

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